Aktobe – is a huge industrial city, which spreads over an area of 400 thousand square kilometers — the largest economic and cultural center of the western Kazakhstan. The city is located in the European part of the country, on the shore of Ilek — the left tributary of the Ural River, the central part of Subural plateau, which is a foothill valley with the height of 250-400 meters.
The climate of the region is sharply continental, with warm summers, lasting up to five months per year and a moderately cold winters.
The population of Aktobe, according to the statistics of 2009 year is about 357.2 thousand people of various nationalities, which in percentage terms is as follows: Kazakhs — 68.7%, Russian — 19.6%, Ukrainians — 5.7%, Tatars — 2.21%, Germans — 0.92% and other nationalities.
The city does not have any ancient history, which is rooted in centuries, it is quite young and was founded only in 1869 year as one of a number of fortifications specially designed to protect the rest of the Russian Empire in the south-eastern outskirts. The fortress was built on two adjacent hills, the top one of which was crowned with Muslim Cemetery, which shrines were built of white stones. Hence the name of «Ak-tobe» is translated as «white hill» from Kazakh language. Less than ten years passed, and the borders of the Empire retreated far to the south. Therefore, Aktobe from strategically important facility turned into a regular town, where, settlers from many regions of Russia poured in search of a better life. At the same time, on the inhabited areas near the garrison the Kazakhs began to settle.
On May 29, 1891 year military settlement of Ak-Tobe was officially recognized as the town and got the name of — Aktobe. Something around the same period, the construction of a railway, communicating Orenburg with Tashkent started. In 1901 year the railway was built through the city and in 1977 year it became the center of Aktyubinsk West-Kazakhstan railway, which, over time, turned it into a developed industrial metropolis. After the arrival of Soviet power in 1932 year, Aktyubinsk became the center of the region of the same name. And in the years of independence of theRepublic of Kazakhstan, the city returned the original name of Aktobe, although in many regions of the former USSR, it is still called as Aktyubinsk.
Modern Aktobe – is the largest economic center in western Kazakhstan. There are ferroalloy, agricultural, machinery, chromium compounds, roentgen equipment and others plants here. Chemical, light and food industries are widely represented; alcoholic beverage production is specially developed at this place. Additionally, gas-processing and mining processing plants are waiting for being launched in the nearest future.
Aktobe region is rich in large deposits of oil and gas. Besides, turbine power plant operates in the area of Zhanazhol.
The main gate of the city are considered to be: the railway station, two bus stations and airport of Aktobe, which has international status.
The city has five universities and two of the museum of national importance, Sports Palace and Central Stadium, which fully follows the standards of UEFA. The local Drama Theatre named after T. Akhtanov, founded in 1935 year, is of great popularity. The city has its own football team.
Aktobe is considered the unofficial capital of punk rock of Kazakhstan, in particular, the annual festival informal music — «Dry wind» is held namely here, which attracts thousands of spectators and participants from all over the CIS.
2008 year was remarked by held here V Forum of regional cooperation of Russia and Kazakhstan. That time, the city was visited for the first time by the two countries’ presidents, Dmitry Medvedev and Nursultan Nazarbayev.
Attractions of Aktobe.
Aktobe Regional History Museum.
Local History Museum was founded in 1929 year on the initiative of the local ethnographers. These days, its exposition areas compound 1550 square meters, and more than 90 thousand items are contained in its collections – the witnesses of the growth and development of a region and country as a whole.
At the disposal of specialists of the museum are interesting artifacts — gold ornaments from mounds «Besoba», «Nagorno», «Syntas», as well as the items from the tomb of the leader of the Huns (the village of Zhilyanka), stone statues belonging to the X-XIII centuries.
The museum also holds the remains of ancient animals: indrikoteriy (prehistoric mammal), the horns of giant deer, mammoth bones and the skull of the primitive bull.
A room devoted to the nature of native land is of especially proud of the exhibition. Here, among the exhibits there are 61 species of plants, which are listed in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan and 22 ones that are assigned to the category of endemics. As well as 32 species of rare birds, including: pink flamingo, Siberian Cranes, bustards, curly-haired and pink pelicans, swans, whooper swan, black scoter.
There is the first and only planetarium in Kazakhstan, situated exactly in Aktobe, which was opened in 1967 year. A vehicle of the same title («planetarium») up to nowadays remains its pride, thanks to which a complete model of the starry sky can be recreated on one of the domes.
In the planetarium training and popular lectures on astronomy, space science, astrophysics are regularly held, observation of the galaxy life and simply heavenly phenomena are often organized.
Planetarium funds have more than seven thousand transparencies and slides, which show interesting astronomical events.
Koblandy batir – is a hero of the national epic, a symbol of courage and pride of the Kazakh people. Something about 30 variants of the poem dedicated to him Have survived.
His burial was found on the left bank of the river Cobden, in 1995 year. At the same time, a commemorative inscription was set on the grave stone, and a little later the remains of batir were solemnly reburied.
The mausoleum, which was built in honor of the legendary hero in 2007 year, does not virtually have any analogs among the buildings of this kind.
The shape of the tomb resembles a helmet of Batyr together with a shield and sword. Its size is 17.5 meters high and 12 wide. Near the mausoleum is still preserved the stone, on which Koblandy used to sharpen his miraculous sword, 3 meters long and 60 centimeters wide, that is also located at the burial site.
That is queite unique, rare in western Kazakhstan sculptural monument, located in twelve kilometers to the east of the village Beskopa, situated in Kobdinsk area.
Abat-Baytak was built in honor of the son of the famous philosopher — Hasan Kaigy Abate. But a smaller burrial — Kiz Aulie is located near his tomb.
The height of Abat-Baytak reaches 14.5 meters, the researchers believe that the initial height of the structure was 16 meters, but the lower part eventually was drifted by sand. The monument was laid out of brick exclusively of local workers. There is a hypothesis that the top of the mausoleum was gilded and decorated with blue tiles.
In the XVIII-XIX centuries there was a huge necropolis at this place, as it is evidenced by the unique kulpytasy (headstones), which even these days are of large numbers here.