Kazakhstan – is a really huge country that is situated in the heart of the Eurasian continent, which occupies the 9th place in the world in terms of territory. Being located from the south of the Ural Mountains, at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, for hundreds of centuries, this land is located on the border of different religions, civilizations and cultures.
Kazakhstan has never been on the margins of history. Even in the distant past, the peoples knew this country as Dasht-i-Kipchak — Great Steppe of the ancient nomads. The waves of human migrations many times overwhelmed the territory of Kazakhstan in various directions. As a result, exceptionally unique culture has developed there, which today is the main wealth of the country. It adjoins the antiquity and modernity, the Eastern tradition connects with the western modernity, and European practicality absolutely does not contradict the Asian relaxation, luxury and bliss.
Kazakhstan – is one of the few countries in the Central Asian region, which since independence has achieved incredible heights and taken its rightful place in the lists of the world community. These days, Kazakhstan established diplomatic relations with 106 countries. Thus, more than 60 embassies, international organizations and foreign missions successfully operate in the republic. Kazakhstan is a member of more than 60 international communities such as — the UN, CICA, OSCE, SCO, CIS, CSTO, EurAsEC, CES, NATO / EAPC summit, OIC, TURKSOY and the great number of others.
The country is absolutely open to the whole world and as a result, interest in Kazakhstan in recent years has increased incredibly. Moreover, there is really a lot to look at here!
The Republic of Kazakhstan, at the expense of a large area and its unique location, strikes with an unprecedented variety of climatic zones, natural forms and landscapes. Only here in just a few hours the traveler can reach from the heat of the subtropics to the arctic cold silence. The nature has generously endowed this blessed land and people try to make it more beautiful.
Having come here you will be amazed by the grandeur and modernity of the two capital cities — Almaty and Astana, surprised with an incredible access of the Baikonur Cosmodrome, inviting everyone to participate in the real space launch. Plunge into the exotica of national traditions, taking part in hunting with golden eagles.
And of course, the most lasting impression on you for sure will be made by people, who are very pragmatic in the Western way and at the same time, very kind generous and hospitable in the oriental way. That is people, standing firmly on home land and looking with confidence into the future.
Kazakhstan state is a unitary constitutional republic of the presidential-parliamentary type of government.
The head of state since 1991 year is the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, who has chosen social harmony and political stability, patriotism, and economic development for the benefit of the people to be his political credo, addressing important issues of public life through democratic reforms, including voting at the national referenda or in Parliament.
The country is situated almost at the crossroads of two continents — Europe and Asia. Its territory stretches from the lower reaches of the Volga River in the west to the Altai foothills in the east, taking up two time zones for 3,000 kilometers. From the north to the south the lands of Kazakhstan occupy 2,000 kilometers, and stretch from the West Siberian Plain in the north to the Tian Shan Mountains and the Kyzyl Kum desert in the south.
The total area of its territory is 2,717,300 square kilometers and considered to be the 9th largest in the whole world, giving the way only to Russia, China, USA, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, India and Australia.
Kazakhstan shares borders with China, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and the Russian Federation, the total length of which is12,187 kilometers.
The climate here is continental, due to the remoteness from the oceans and seas. Average January temperatures is from -19 ° C to -2 ° C, average July temperature is from +19 ° C to +28 ° C, with large differences across regions of the country. Therefore, summer temperatures in southern Kazakhstan may reach +49 ° C, and winter temperature in the north of up to -57 ° C.
The best time to visit Kazakhstan is spring — from April to June, as well as autumn — from September to November, because in summer it is too hot.
According to researches in January 1, 2011, the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan amounts to 16.433 million people, with 6.02 square kilometers per each person. 57% of the population is concentrated in the cities and only 43% live in rural areas.
Kazakhstan is a very multinational state. Thus, almost 20 nationalities live in its territory, the largest percentage of which goes to the Kazakh, Russian, Ukrainians, Uighurs, Tatars and Germans.
Since 2007 year, the influx of population in the country exceeded the outflow. Scientists project that by 2018 year the estimated population in Kazakhstan will be about 19 million inhabitants.
The Republic of Kazakhstan – is a secular state, the constitution of which guarantees freedom of religion.
Kazakhstan – used to be a multi-confessional country, where peacefully more than three thousand religious organizations representing 40 denominations live together.
The predominant religion of the country (according to the number of believers) is a Sunni Muslim, which is characterized by the recognition of freedom of opinion in religion and tolerance towards dissent.
It is interesting that 45% of the population is atheists or agnostics.
Astana — is the capital of Kazakhstan. This city is located near the geographical center of the country, at the intersection of the main trunk transport routes. There are the highest bodies of power and control in the city, such as «Ak Orda» — the residence of the President, Parliament, Supreme and Constitutional Courts, head ministries and departments. All the official state events take place in Astana.
The National Flag of Kazakhstan is a rectangular cloth of blue sky with the image of the sun in the center of it, shaded by 32 rays, under which the flying steppe eagle is located. A vertical band of national ornament is placed parallel towards shaft, in the left edge of the cloth.
The flag of this state is very strict, almost ascetic. Thus, only two colors are involved in its design. Those are a deep sky-blue background and bright gold color in the image of the sun rays, eagle and ornament. The proportions of the flag are 1:2.
The central element that bears the main idea of the emblem of the state is «shanyrak» — the round top of the dome of the national yurts, and together with it two necessary attributes — «tundyk» and «uyk.» Since time immemorial, «Shanyrak» was a symbol of family prosperity, peace and tranquility. «Tundyk» – is the top opening of the yurt, reminds the bright sun against the backdrop of boundless, peaceful sky. «Uyk» – that are poles supporting the dome, evenly disperse from the center and symbolizes the rays of the sun — a source of vitality and warmth.
Another part of the composition of the state emblem is horses with golden wings, called — «tulpars.» Being situated on either sides of a stylized house, they guard their homes, bring prosperity and welfare to the Motherland. Moreover, their golden wings symbolize the flight of the soul and purity of thoughts in the achievement of goals.
Symbol of the house on the strong supports, firmly secured and at the same time totally open to the whole world – that is the meaning of the heraldic composition, reflecting the peaceful essence of the Kazakh people.
The color solution of the public emblem is identical to the national flag. Here only two colors are involved — sky blue background and bright gold of all the elements of the picture.
The Anthem of Kazakhstan – is the song, written by Shamshi Kaldajakov and Zhumekena Nazhimedenov, called «Menin Kazakstanim», which received official status in 2006 year after a number of changes that determine the thrust of the work. Amendments to the text were made personally by the President — Nursultan Nazarbayev, that is why he was also indicated as co-author of the text.
During the performance of national anthem at official ceremonies, the audience encouraged to get up and put the open palm of the right hand to heart.
For lack of respect towards national symbols (flag, state emblem and anthem) of the Republic of Kazakhstan, a criminal prosecution in accordance with the Constitution is stipulated.
The official currency of Kazakhstan is Kazakh tenge, which consists of 100 tiyns, which entered into circulation in 1993 year. However, in the autumn of 2006 year, banknotes of the new model were issued, which gradually ousted the old ones.
Foreign currency (dollar, euro) can be easily exchanged for tenge, both at the «black» market and in all banks, as well as in every exchange offices of the country. Almost everywhere, the main international and European credit cards are accepted.
The National Bank of the country heads the financial system of Kazakhstan State. The Financial Supervision Agency has preventive and supervisory powers. The stock market is under development.
Officially established national holidays of the Republic of Kazakhstan, considered to be public holidays:
January 1 — New Year
March 8 — International Women’s Day
March 22 — Nauryz
May 1 – The holiday of Unity of Peoples of Kazakhstan
May 7 — Fatherland Defender’s Day
May 9 — Victory Day
May 31 — Memorial Day of Victims of Political Repression
June 4 — Day of the state symbols of the Republic of Kazakhstan
June 23 — Police Day