Kyrgyzstan – is the country which territory is rather big (198 500 sq. km.) and cozily nestled between the deserts of Uzbekistan, the steppes of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and the lands of western China. The borders of Kyrgyzstan are primarily held by its natural boundaries — the rivers and high mountain ridges, occasionally descending to the plains of Chui, Talas and Fergana valleys.
In general, Kyrgyzstan – is the mountainous country, the average height above sea level is 2750 meters, only the south-west dipping to 394 m.
At its open spaces freely spread the majestic foothills of the Tien Shan and Pamir mountains with well-known mountain peaks — peak Pobeda (7439m.) and Lenin’s Peak (7,134 m)
Exactly these two mountain ranges have turned land of Kyrgyzstan to the lands of the pristine glaciers and fast mountain rivers, colorful alpine meadows of which, amazing by variety of flora and fauna, and bursting with fertile valleys, as if beckoning to them with riot of greenery.
Remarkably beautiful mountains and unrealistic by cleanness blue lakes – these are exactly those objects which, without any doubt, would be the hallmark of tourism in Kyrgyzstan, if its land, nor even kept the other myriad wonders.
In Kyrgyzstan there are thousands of historical and cultural monuments such as: caves of primitive people, the unique runic inscriptions, the mysterious rock carvings, ruins of ancient settlements and majestic in its beauty medieval citadel.
The state is just perfect for those who embark on a journey for new knowledge, historical discoveries, familiarity with an unknown culture and fascinating impressions of meetings with interesting people.
Hopefully, the days when the TV screens we had been threatened by political instability and unrest in Kyrgyzstan had been gone forever. Moreover, we all just will have a wonderful vacation in this one home — warm and very hospitable country.
The climate of Kyrgyzstan is temperate continental, a feature of which is the dry air, so that the entire country has 247 sunny days a year.
Due to the strong heterogeneity of topography, the country has several climatic zones: sub-polar, in areas of high mountains, temperate and subtropical in the foothills, in the areas of the valleys.
Summer is dry and hot. Average July temperatures in the valleys rise to 20C-27C, 15C in the mid mountains -17C, and in the high mountainous areas the temperature increases till +5C, it is very often can be met when in the higher zones in the mountains summer temperatures are lower.
Average temperatures in January range from -2 C to -8 C in the valleys, and from -8 to -20 C in the zone of medium height. In the highlands, the average January temperature often drops to-28C.
The most of the rainfalls happen in May and June, as well as in the late fall and almost all winter. Maximum number of them varies from 230 mm in the valleys to 950 mm in the mountains. And in mid-winter snow drifts can reach 1 meter, and in the highlands deep snow does not melt throughout the year.
According to the experts’ statistics the population of Kyrgyzstan is about 5.482 million people (2009), the majority mass of which is Kyrgyz people — 69.9%. The Kyrgyz people live in all parts of the country, for the most part, took a fancy to live in rural areas.
Uzbeks, whose number reaches 14.5% of the population, are the second largest ethnic component of the country, they settled long ago in Osh, Chui and Fergana valleys, areas of Naryn and Thalass, as well as in the Issyk-Kul basin.
The population of Russians in the country is about 8.6% and they are deployed, mostly in major cities across the country. The Ukrainians have appeared in the country, along with Russians, and they are up 5.5% of the population live compactly in many cities in Chui region and the whole of Kyrgyzstan.
Also from the large ethnic diasporas, we can call the Germans, who arrived in the XIX century and who came here from the Ukraine, and settled mostly in the Talas region and near the town of Kant, Chui Valley. Tatars live only in cities. Dungans, who moved to Kyrgyzstan in the XIX century from the north-western China and the Uighurs, most of whom hit the country, fleeing from the «cultural revolution» in China in the 50’s of the twentieth century. The number of each of the diaspora does not exceed one percent of the total population and has no strict localization.
Officially the state language of the country is the Kyrgyz language, but Russian language is retained in full and used as a way of international communication. The Kyrgyz Republic guarantees the right to maintain and develop their native languages for all ethnic groups of the population, avoiding infringement of the rights and freedoms of citizens on grounds of ignorance of the state (official) language.
Kyrgyzstan is officially a secular state, not adhering to any denomination. However, the majority of the population (Kyrgyz, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Uighurs, and Dungans) are Sunni Muslims.
Other religions practiced among the population of Kyrgyzstan are Christianity, Protestantism and Judaism.
Kyrgyzstan is unitary, sovereign, democratic republic, being built on the foundations of a legal, secular state.
The internal politics of the country aimed at the development of a democratic society and building local government which is recognized as the basis of public life. All human rights and freedoms, ensuring peace and harmony in the country, according to the Constitution of Kyrgyzstan are guaranteed.
The last of the state constitutions was adopted on 27 July 2010, after happened in the same year a coup.
According to the legislation of the Kyrgyz Republic, the main governing body in the country is a unicameral parliament composed of 90 members. Deputies are elected for a term of 5 years according to the parties’ lists. The Prime Minister is officially recognized as the head of the government by the law, appointed by the President of the Kyrgyzstan by the parliament’s proposal.
The President of the country is the head of state, the symbol of the unity of the government power and the people and guarantees the rights and freedoms of citizens. Any citizen of the country at the age of ot35 to 65 years, who knows the state language and has lived in the territory of at least 15 years can be elected for the Kyrgyz president position.
From 3 July 2010 the President of the country is Roza Otunbayeva. This is the third president of the Republic since the proclamation of independence.
The national flag of Kyrgyzstan approved by the Supreme Council 3 March 1992 and is a red flag in the center of which lies a golden disc with a bright sun forty evenly coming rays. Inside the solar disk there is an image of placed tyundyuk – that is the name of Kyrgyz yurt — a symbol of the father’s house, home, world, and universe. Forty receding rays represent ancient forty Kyrgyz tribes which were collected in a single state.
The red color of the flag — is a tribute to the generous Manas — the hero of the national epic, athlete has united people of the country.
The national emblem of the country was adopted on 14 January 1994 and shows:
— Spreading its wings a white falcon — the symbol of the freedom of the country, striving for better vigilance, the generosity and the height of thoughts;
— Surface of the water pearl of Kyrgyzstan — the Lake of Issyk-Kul — the source of vitality and character of natural beauty;
— The peaks of the mountains which are brightened rising sun as a symbol of hope for a brighter future.
Ears of wheat and cotton on the edges of the branches of the emblem symbolize the diversity of cultures in Kyrgyzstan, united by a single principle, which names — the people!
The national anthem.
The national anthem was officially proclaimed on December 18, 1992.
High mountains, valleys, fields —
Dear, cherished our land.
Our fathers lived among the Ala-Too
Always were keeping their country faithfully.
Go ahead, the Kyrgyz people,
By Freedom ahead!
Grow up the people and flourish,
Create your own destiny!
Since immemorial our people, were open for friendship,
Unity and friendship, it keeps in its heart.
The land of Kyrgyzstan is the home country
This is brightened with the rays of agreement.
Hopes and dreams of the fathers came true.
And the banner of freedom rises skyward.
The legacy of our fathers we will give,
For the benefit of the people and to their descendants.
Administrative-territorial division of the country.
On the administrative — territorial basis Kyrgyzstan is divided into 7 regions: Batken, Issyk-Kul, Jalal-Abad, Osh, Naryn, Talas, Chui. Area includes 39 districts, 21 cities, 30 towns and 1802 villages.
The biggest cities – are Bishkek and Osh, moreover there are Jalal-Abad, Tokmok, Talas, Kant, Karakol Uzgen.
The capital of Kyrgyzstan is Bishkek.
The official currency of the state is the «Som», issued May 10, 1993 by the National Bank of Kyrgyz Republic.
Currently, the national currency Banknote series presented by the following denominations: 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 soms and coins in denominations of 1, 10, 50 tyiyn.
Initially, a som was the equivalent of 25 U.S. cents, but inflation is considerably devalued the national currency. Today, the official exchange rate of the som to the dollar, as well as other world currencies can be found in any national bank in the country.
All notes and coins of the national currency of Kyrgyzstan have the status of public tender; they are used in the country and should be accepted for payment regardless of the issued year.