Andijan is considered to be one of the oldest towns in the Ferghana Valley. It is located in the south-eastern part of it, on the bank of the ancient river named Andijansay. A distance from the capital of Republic – the city of Tashkent is 447 kilometers; the altitude above sea level is 450meters. The climate of this area is continental, thus, average temperatures in July are used to be +28 C, but in January – minus 3 C.
The city is located in a zone of high seismic activity.
Today Andijan city, which is situated in the place of the first settlements of the early civilizations of Ferghana valley, spread out on the territory of 74.3 square kilometers and has a population of more than 320 thousand people. The city is densely populated with citizens of more than 15 nationalities, most of whom are Uzbeks.
Main line of industry is considered to be a mining and oil refining. The main branch of agriculture is growing and processing of cotton.
The exact date of foundation of the city is unknown. By assumption of scientists, the city was established even before our era on a territory of several caravanserais’ which were located on the one of the busiest branches of the Great Silk Road, connected China with Central Asia. So, even until nowadays, Andijan retained the title of the Eastern gate of Ferghana Valley.
At various times the town was called in different ways: Andukon, Andigon, Andijan. Although its name was surrounded by many beautiful legends, the historians tend to assume that the name came from the Uzbek clan «Andy» who lived in these places.
Andijan, as any other major trading city, has an extremely turbulent history. In the I century it was a part of the Kushan Khanate, then after the conquest of Arabs in the IX-X century, it became a part of the Samanid state, and after the reign of Timur, in the XV century, a local great statesman, philosopher, poet, historian — Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur, more known to us as the founder of the Mogul Empire, settled down in Andijan.
To imagine how Andijan looked like at that time, it is enough to read a passage from his immortal poem «Babur-Name»: «… One of the towns on the southern coast called Andijan, located in the middle. It is the capital of Ferghana. There is a lot of bread there, fruits are abundant, melons and grapes are good. During the ripening of melons (because of the abundance) it is not in the habit of selling them and you will never be able to find out pears better than Andijan’ ones.
There is no larger fortress in the whole Maverannakhr than in Andijan city, except in Samarkand and Kesh. There are three gates In the city, and the arc of Andijan is situated on the southern side. Water comes into the city by nine channels. There is a large road paved with gravel around the fortress, outside the ditch. Everywhere, the fortress is surrounded by the suburbs, separated from it by a moat, on the edge of which a wide road stretches… »
In the XVI century the city falls under the authority of Sheybonids and later became a part of the Kokand Khanate.
A devastating earthquake in 1902 year destroyed the town almost to the ground level. Therefore, priceless monuments of the long history were practically all lost.
However, having lost material monuments, the people of Andijan did not lose their spirituality, and nowadays here the culture and traditions of people, anciently inhabited the Ferghana Valley, are successfully combined. Up to these days, the mutual respect, hospitality, respect for elders, women and children are in habit here. Andijan is barely the only region in Uzbekistan, where children are applied as adults, calling «You».
The modern city is one of the largest decorative — applied arts of Uzbekistan. Everything can be find here: pottery and molded ceramics, unique embroidery of national skullcaps, as well as the magnificent painted handles and surfaces of the weapons of various samples.
Andijan and its locality are considered to be a paradise of Ferghana Valley.
A park of Khanabad located near the beautiful reservoir and called “Uzbek Switzerland”, has a special fascination for many tourists and locals. Here you can admire the huge flower gardens, see the blue surface of the majestic reservoir and just wander along the beautiful shady avenues. Moreover, the trees planted in the park are almost all of the valuable species and were specially brought from all over the world.
National Park named after Babur — this is the place which is also impossible to miss visiting Andijan.
Located on the area of 300 hectares , this National Park is a favorite place for vacation for Andijan region locals, as well as for residents of other areas of the Ferghana Valley. People used to come here specifically with all family memberships, because in this place you can combine business with pleasure. In addition to the fairy nature, namely here you can visit the unique museum — «Babur and World Culture» exhibition, which collected rare documents of history and literature of Central Asia nations and the Babur dynasty.
Among the monuments of the history of Andijan, the architectural complex of «Jami», which includes the Madrassah, mosque and minaret; the House Museum of Babur; the tomb of the Arab commander and conqueror — Kuteyba ibn Muslim in Djalalkuduk area; architectural monument “Ahmadbekhoji” survived.
The capital of the ancient state of Davan – Ershi town (today named Ming Tepa), located 30 kilometers from Andijan, now is also open for viewing.
Centuries-old plane trees and slender pyramidal poplars, flexible acacia, blooming in spring and endless cotton fields in a frame of silk trees, a heady scent of peaches and melons at the bazaars and children’s sense of Oriental fairy tale with a happy end – all this is Andijan!
This is one of the few survived monuments of history after the devastating earthquake if 1902 year. The complex consists of Madrassah, mosque and minaret.
Madrassah of Jami astonishes you with its size and appearance. It has a symmetrical composition of the main facade, facing towards Mecca, in the center of which a traditional Ferghana portal with a certainly lancet niche and arched gallery are placed; two towers topped by lanterns are located around the edges. There are covered with domes classrooms, in the corners of building and there are also two floors of hujras between them. The main element of the decor is carved lattice with a geometric pattern, called pandjara.
Jami Mosque is the largest building for such an appointment in the Ferghana Valley. It is located in the western part of the complex. In addition to 26 spans of the main facade, a multi-column aivan with a spectacular painted ceiling is also of an undoubted interest.
Minaret with a height of 32 meters also is referred to this complex. It was built of brick on the octagonal base, each face of which was decorated with lancet niches and ornamentation epigraphic medallions. The minaret was topped with lancet openings, overlapped by a dome, with a lantern inside of it.