Bukhara … ancient and beautiful, it attracts the eyes of millions people like a magnet. A huge amount of human history is linked with the city of fairy tales, legends and poetry. Age of Bukhara is more than 2500 years. According to one of the legend it was founded by Prince Siyavush, the son of an Iranian king, married a daughter of the king Afrosiab. During his reign, he built the Ark Fortress. The Ark Fortress became the center of the ancient city. A residential suburb «Shahristan” formed around the Ark Fortress and beyond the trade dome -» rabad”. A wall with eleven gates was built around the city in 849-850 years. Abubakr Narshakhi – one of saint Sufi, wrote his «History of Bukhara” in the 899-959 years.
Today is known for certain that Bukhara had been inhabited even before our era. What the invaders only hadn’t fought for this «Successful area”, that is translation of “buxoro” from a sogdian language. It is not surprising, because the city occupied a very good position of the Bukhara oasis, through which the Great Silk Road passed.
At one time Bukhara was ruled by the Arabs who came to power in 707 year, which brought Islam and began to build religious complexes such as madrasahs, mosques and minarets. Bukhara was the capital of the Samanids (829-999), was in the state of the Karakhonids in XI-XII cc, the Khorezmshakhs (1212-1220), the Mongol ulus (1220-1370) and joined the Power of Amir Timur (1370). Bukhara was the capital of Sheybonids and Ashtarkhanids in XVI-XVII cc and was separated from the Fergana Valley in the XVII cc. Also, Bukhara was influenced by Mangyt Dynasty (1753- 1920).
In different time periods the Bukhara flourished or fell into a depression.
And though locals desperately fought against the invaders and picking up numerous uprisings and revolts, all epochs had left their architectural mark on the heart of Bukhara.
In 1873 Bukhara was under the protectorate of Royal Russia. In 1920 year, after the establishment of Soviet power, Bukhara became the Bukhara People’s Republic, and since 1925 is part of the Uzbek SSR. Only in 1991, after declaration of independence of Uzbekistan, Bukhara became a separate province in the independent Republic of Uzbekistan.
Today, Bukhara is one of the leading cities of Uzbekistan and makes a significant contribution to the social, political, economic and spiritual life of the country, as an important center of science, crafts, spirituality and Tourism of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Local people carefully preserved and are proud of true treasures of their great city. City that gave the world such names as historians Narshakhi, Baladhuri , Tabari, Ibn Miskaveyh; poet Rudaki Dakiki; physician and mathematician, lexicographer, Abu Ali Ibn Sina (known as Avicenna),poet and philosopher Al-Farabi and Omar Khayyam.
A difficult travel day is over. There comes a sultry summer night, a blessed city sleep. A tired old street with monumental buildings sleep and only their colorful domes and portals majestically soar skyward. Overlapping trade-domes buildings on the market sleep. The ancient Mausoleum of Samanids keeps sullen silence. Already there is no one from locals in favorite Lyabi-Hauz square. The mighty mass of citadel rises like a formidable guard. Kalyan Minaret — a beacon for those who are on the road ascends to heaven above all this proudly.
Sleep the ancient city. Tomorrow will be a new brand day, new friends arrive and Bukhara once again will share with them the secrets.
Architectural monuments of Bukhara:
- Sitorai Mohi Kosa
- Mausoleum of Samanids (892 — 943)
- Ark Fortress (V c.)
- Kalyan Minaret (1127 year)
- Bolo-Hauz complex (XVIIIc.)
- Ensemble Labi-Hauz (XVII c.)
- Madrasah Nadir — Devan-Begi (1622-1623)
- Zindan (XVIII c.)
- Ensemble Khoja Gaukushon (XVI c.)
- Trade domes (XVI c.)
- Baths Hamom (XVIc.)
- Mosque Maggoki — Attori «mosque in a hole»
- Necropolis Chor-Bakr (XVI-XVIII cc.)
- Chor-Minor (XIX c.)
- Chashma — Ayub (XII c.)