Uzbekistan is warm and sunny country, attracted from the ancient times many travelers all over the world. Uzbekistan is famous with amazing hospitality: people here will meet you very warm! Also it is very beautiful and rich with recourses country. The nature will make you surprise with her great variety: hot and majestic sands of the Kyzyl-Kum desert, where went ancient caravans of the Great Silk Road, amazing mountain system of Tien-Shan and Pamir, lifeless steppe and deserts are changing with oasis where growth cotton and figs, rise and grapes. Green valleys surrounded by the mountain ranges, covered with white snows. Thousand of rivers and streams flow down from the mountains, flow together with biggest Asian rivers – Amu Darya and Syr Darya. From the ancient time Uzbekistan was the bridge between countries and nations as cross road of the ancient caravan’s road, the bridge of the meeting for many languages, cultures and civilizations. Exactly here was the Great Silk Road, jointed China, India, Central Asia, Iraq, and also countries of the Middle East and Mediterranean. Many caravans transferred silk and porcelain, spices, jewelry, carpets and medicines. Uzbek earth went through many things: ups and down of the civilizations, wars of the many majestic empires, people migrations, brilliance of the scientific ideas, miracles of the architecture. That’s why visiting this amazing fairy-tale country you will dip into the past and feel the breath of the history!

Political structure of the country:
Current status — Uzbekistan is sovereign democratic republic composed of CIS countries.
Political system: unitary state.
Head of state: The president of the republic of Uzbekistan, elected by democratic elections for 7 years. Current president is Islam Karimov, again elected on 23-th of December in 2007. He is also the prime minister of the cabinet council of the republic of Uzbekistan.

National symbol: national flag, national emblem, national anthem.

National Flag.
FlagOn 18-th of November of 1991 republic Of Uzbekistan got new national flag, consisted of 3 horizontal stripes colored in blue, white and green colors. The white stripe is fringed from below and above by red lines. Width and length ratio is two parts to one.There are white half-moon and 12 white stars on the blue stripe. The blue color in the flag symbolizes sky and water as two most important sources of life! Besides, blue color is age-old color of Turkic nation which Uzbek people belong to. The blue color was the color of the banner of the ancient Central Asian state with capital in Samarkand, with great famous Tamerlane (Amir Temur) as head in end of XIVc. and in the beginning of XV c. Thereby, the blue stripe is the symbol of vital power of the republic and sign of the historical succession. The white stripe is the traditional symbol of peace, wishing the good way (ok yul) and tendency to the moral cleanness of intentions and actions.
The green color is the color of nature, new life (“Navruz” holiday) and fertility. Also green color is the color of Islam. First appearance of this color has ancient history, when Central Asia in VIII c AD became as part of Arab caliphate, extended from France till China. Red stripes, framed middle (white) stripe from below and above emphasize the vital power of each living organism. This power links our kind, clear thoughts with everlasting sky with real actions at the earth. Besides, these two stripes are considered as “blood vessels”, nourished earth, which are Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers.
Young half-moon at the flag of Uzbekistan symbolizes new young born Muslim republic. Twelve stars in flag usually considered by all nations as symbol of cloudless sky. Clear sky is peace, light and prosperity. Honoring of the twelve stars reminds about sunny year, beginning from Navruz- the time when spring stars. The names of all months of this year (Khamal, Sovr, Djavza, Saraton, Asad etc) are at the same time the names of 12 zodiacal constellations in the sky.
It’s important to note, that symbols of 12 stars have nothing common with religious sects and senses.
According to the star’s catalogue of Ulugbek (he great statesman and astronomer of XV c.) the movement of the Sun along the sky is exactly determined with location of 12 stars. This sunny cycle of 12 years is calling “Muchal”. According to the ideas of the oriental philosophers the number of 12 is indicator of comprehensive and perfection. It is assumed that world consists of 4 elements: earth, air, water and fire, which acting in 3 levels: in earth, at the sky and between sky and earth. Four elements multiplied on the 3 levels are giving the number of 12, enveloping universe.
That’s why 12 stars in the flag we should understand as symbolic intention to the perfection. In directions of Mirsand Barak philosopher and in the work of famous historian Khondemir is telling about 12 the most important rules, which should be used in managing of the country. They are truthfulness, justice, political correctness, morality, prowess, devotion and other person»s best qualities.

National Emblem
National Emblem of Uzbekistan developed with account of centuries-old national and state experience and traditions. The low about “National Emblem of Republic of Uzbekistan” was accepted in 2-d of July of 1992 year at the 10-th session of the Supreme Soviet of the republic of Uzbekistan.
There is Khumo-bird with extended wings in the centre, which in Uzbek mythology means happiness and love of freedom.Uzbek poet Alisher Navoi called Khumo as the kindest from all live creatures! There is octahedron at the top of the national emblem, which symbolize asseveration of the republic and half-moon with the star. Image of sun symbolize light, illuminating the way of the Uzbek state.
Two rivers, painted below the bird- are Amy Darya and Syr Darya, run at the Uzbekistan territory.
Ears of wheat are the symbols of bread and stalks with the opened cotton bolls symbolize the main riches of Uzbekistan. Ears of wheat and cotton bolls together tangled with band of the national flag be characterized by consolidation of the nations, living in Uzbekistan.

National anthem
The low about national anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan was accepted on the 10-th December of 1992 at the 11-th session of the Supreme Soviet of the republic of Uzbekistan.
The music: Mutal Burkhanov
The words: Abdulla Oripov
Serquyosh, hur o‘lkam, elga baxt, najot,
Sen o‘zing do‘stlarga yo‘ldosh, mehribon!
Yashnagay to abad ilmu fan, ijod,
Shuhrating porlasin toki bor jahon!
Oltin bu vodiylar — jon O‘zbekiston,
Ajdodlar mardona ruhi senga yor!
Ulug‘ xalq qudrati jo‘sh urgan zamon,
Olamni mahliyo aylagan diyor!
Bag‘ri keng o‘zbekning o‘chmas iymoni,
Erkin, yosh avlodlar senga zo‘r qanot!
Istiqlol mash’ali, tinchlik posboni,
Haqsevar, ona yurt, mangu bo‘l obod!
Oltin bu vodiylar — jon O‘zbekiston,
Ajdodlar mardona ruhi senga yor!
Ulug‘ xalq qudrati jo‘sh urgan zamon,
Olamni mahliyo aylagan diyor!

English translation
My sunny free land, happiness and salvation to your people,
You are a warmhearted companion to your friends!
Flourish forever with learning and creativity,
May your glory shine as long as the world exists!
These golden valleys – dear Uzbekistan,
The courageous spirit of your ancestors is with you!
When the great power of the people raged,
(You were) the country that charmed the world!
The faith of an open-hearted Uzbek does not die out,
The young free generation is a strong wing for you!
Beacon of independence, guardian of peace,
Lover of truth, motherland, flourish forever!
These golden valleys – dear Uzbekistan,
The courageous spirit of your ancestors is with you!
When the great power of the people raged,
(You were) the country that charmed the world!

Language: Uzbek language is the state language with Latin graphic. Russian language is the international mean of communication for more than 80 % of people. The most signboards and indicators made by Cyrillic.
Religion: The greatest part of the local people professes Islam. The most Muslims living here are Sunnites, but this religion isn’t state. There are many religious organizations, supporting different confessions (Christianity: orthodoxy, Catholicism, Baptist doctrines, Presbyterianism; Adventists of the 7-th day; Judaism; Krishna worship; church of Gen-Khyan etc. ). In general the people are tolerant with mutual respect.
The national monetary unit: is sum (there are the notes in 100, 200, 500, 1000, 5000 sum in circulation)
There are many exchange offices in republic.

Embassies and consular departments of Uzbekistan:
There are more than 30 embassies and consular departments at the territory of Asian and European countries and also in USA.

Administrative-territorial system:
The common area of Uzbekistan : 447,8 thousand km2 (almost the same area has Morocco and Sweden). Length from north till south is 930 km, from west till east — 1425 km.

Geographical location: the north hemisphere, central part of the Central Asia, between 2 big rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya. In north it border upon Kazakhstan, in northeast – upon Kyrgyzstan, in southeast-upon Tajikistan, in south – with Afghanistan in southwest- upon Turkmenistan.

Climatic conditions: because Uzbekistan restricted by mountain range of Tien-Shan in southeast from the warm Indian Ocean and nothing covers it in north from the northern air mass from the Arctic Ocean, climate here is acutely continental. The big influence to the forming the weather conditions of Uzbekistan make the form of relief and location of the biggest part of the territory in 100-200 meters above sea level.
There are 4 different climatic zones: desert (till 400 meters above sea level), piedmont (from 400 till 1200 m.), mountain (from 1200 till 2800 m.), and mountain pasture- zone of the high-altitude meadows!
The winter (according to the summary of the 2008 year) could be the trying ordeal for the most part of the local people: — 20 degrees of frost and abundant precipitation that aren’t the nature of Uzbekistan.
Some years the temperature of +5+8 degrees is considered as normal. The spring is like rescue for the heat-loving Uzbekistan people, the weather is waking up and blossom, there is everywhere the spirit of the Navruz holiday and temperature is constantly from +10 till +25.
The hardest time is the period from 25-th of June till 5-th of August, calling here as “Chillya”.
There is almost no precipitation and the temperature is till 40-45 degrees this time in Uzbekistan.
After “Chillya” period the heat is falling and become pleasant sunny atmosphere during the closest
2-2,5 months. Some years could stay the dry weather with sparing heat and godsend coolness.
Administrative division of Uzbekistan: there are twelve regions here (Andijan, Bukhara, Djizak,Kashkadariya, Navoi, Namangan, Samarkand, Syrdariya, Tashkent, Fergan, Khorezm) and one autonomic republic (Kara-Kalpak).
Population: 25 981 600 people, density of 50, 1 person for one square meter.
Capital: Tashkent
time zone:
GMT + 5 hrs (winter time).
GMT + 4 hrs (summer time).

Custom formalities:
All arriving to Uzbekistan should arrange the following documents – custom declaration in double : crossing the border foreigner should declare all valuable , bringing in country (jewelers, currency, techniques) and keep second declaration till second crossing the Uzbek border with stamp of custom service. It is possible to bring without declaration not more than 4000 USD by cash.

National holidays:
1-st of January – New Year.
8-th of March – International Women’s Holiday.
21-st of March — Navruz ( Muslim’s New Year).
9-th of May — Memorial Day.
1-st of September – Independence Day.
1-st of October – Teacher’s day.
8-th of December — Constitution Day.
There is official day off work at the mentioned days. Ramazan-khait (depuration holiday after 30-day fast ) and Kurban-khait (the holiday of sacrifice and charity to the needy) holidays are also day off work. There are also unofficial holidays, which support different levels of people and they get easing at the schedule of work (like Easter and Parent’s day ).

International dialing code:
For the work and home telephones:
+7 Uzbekistan.
3712 Tashkent.
3662 Samarkand.
365 Bukhara.
36237 Khiva.

For the mobile operators:
+7 10 998 93 Coscom U Cell.
+7 10 998 94 Coscom U Cell.
+7 10 998 98 Perfectum Mobile.
+7 10 998 90 Unitel Beeline Uzbekistan.
+7 10 998 91 Unitel Beeline Uzbekistan.
+7 10 998 97 UMS Uzbekistan.