The city of a remarkable beauty, named Fergana is located on the southern edge of the Fergana Valley, with a distance of 420 kilometers from the capital and 75 kilometers to the west of Andijan city, at an altitude of 580 meters above a sea level. There are no any ancient monuments, religious places and sites of pilgrimage in this city. Generally, Fergana is a relatively young town. In 2007 year it just turned 130 years old, however, that does not mean that the city does not remember the roots and does not know its history…
1875 year troops of imperial Russia, commanded by General M.D. Skobelev entered into the Fergana Valley. Kokand Khanate was annexed by the Russian Empire. In February 1876 year, the Fergana region was proclaimed. It consisted of: Kokand, Margilan, Andijan, Namangan, and other areas, which were officially included in the Turkistan general-governorship.
Originally, a Russian garrison housed in Kokand, was not capable of managing such a large area from a distance, in addition, the sanitary condition of the city leaves much to be desired. Having asked the permission from the Governor-General, the Russian began to build a new town at a deserted place in the twelve kilometers to the south of the town of Margilan, near the villages of Yarmazar and Sim.
Namely at this moment the history launched a temporary record for the new city.
Already in April 1877 year, the majority of provincial institutions were moved to New Margilan, as was the name of the city.
A military fortress, which was located on the southern edge and held the most exalted position, became the core of the newly built city. The Citadel had the shape of an irregular pentagon, with five bastions outside of it, three of which were on the south-east of the fortress. In case if that was necessary, an aimed artillery fire in the direction of passing roads could be conducted, and the remaining two ones were located on the opposite side in order to protect the city. In the direction of the bastions the main city avenues were built. To the north of the fortress, on the outskirts of the city, a summer cottage of the military governor was constructed. And along the downstream of the Margilan River, which passed throughout the town, a public park was put up.
New Margilan becomes the military and administrative center of the region, as well as General M.D. Skobelev was appointed to the position of the governor. The territory begins being build up.
The Governor’s House (these days it is the building of Drama Theatre) was the first architectural construction of a new city, followed by the House of Governor Assistant (a former City Hospital 2), the Military Assembly (now it is the Officers’ Club), Men’s Gymnasium (administrative building of the University).
The presence a significant number of military fortifications in the city, and also the construction of administrative buildings for their needs, as well as the fact that the city was located far away from the railway and could not become a commercial and industrial center, influenced much on the appearance of New Margilan. Literally before the revolution there was not plumbing or sewage. The decision to pave the streets was also adopted only in 1909 year.
In 1907 year the town was renamed after Skobelev, in honor of its first governor-general. However, since 1924 year, it is called Fergana .
A major growth and the rise of Fergana occurred only in the XX century. That became particularly noticeable after Uzbekistan gained its independence in 1991 year.
Nowadays, Fergana is a modern industrial city, the third largest in the Fergana Valley. Its population is 230 thousand people, and the ethnic composition is very diverse. Along with the indigenous people — the Uzbeks, there is a great number of the Russian, Tajiks, Armenians, Koreans, Azeris and Ukrainians.
In terms of production Fergana ranked as the second in the whole country, giving the way only to the capital — Tashkent. Here are 80 large enterprises of national importance, serving the main industries: chemical, petrochemical, light, food, engineering, metal processing, construction materials, electronics.
A social infrastructure is considered to be well-developed too. There are many elementary, middle and high schools, hospitals, sports facilities, cultural institutions, parks and gardens here. An extensive network of comfortable hotels, cafes and restaurants was created for guests.
The picturesque surroundings of the city successfully replace the absence of monuments of ancient history for tourists.
On the northern slope of the Alai Range in the valley called Shahimardan, which is situated just a little to the south of Ferghana, a mountain resort of «Hamzaabad” is located. A rare beautiful location, mild climate and a healthy air, make it extremely popular. And Blue Lake, located up along the valley Cock Su, always attract tourists like a magnet.
A spa-resort «Chemion» — one of the largest resorts in Central Asia is located also nearby, in the heart of the valley named Altyaryk, next to the foothills of the Alai Mountains. This resort is situated in the eponymous village which is surrounded by green gardens and vineyards. The abundance of mineral springs with medicinal water makes it famous far beyond the region.