Registan Square (“sandy place”)
Registan – is the soul of the historic center of Samarkand, emerged long before Mongol invasion, and was based as a place for crafts and trade at the intersection of six roads leading to the civic gates. Registan complex is an ensemble of three stately buildings that served as educational institutions: Ulugbek madrasah, Sher-Dor madrasah and Tilla-Kori madrasah, facades which face the central square and harmoniously complement each other, though they were created in different times and ages.
Ulugbek Madrasah (1417-1420) is a closed rectangular courtyard. The back side – is the audience mosque, there are open arches on the sides, behind which there are hujras-cells, for teaching students. Magnificent minarets rise on the corners. The grand portal is facing the area beyond; the three other smaller parties complete the rest of the building, the rear portal — is the entrance to the mosque, built later, as khanaka and caravanserai. The architect is not known for certain.
The main advantage — is decoration of madrasah. The cleanness tones of the glaze constituting a mosaic, combining subtlety of tones, the beauty and elegance of the pattern of lines fully demonstrates the perfection of the decorative arts of the medieval Orient.
Sher-Dor madrassah (Abode of the Lions) was built from 1619 till 1636 architect Abdul Jabbar, who mirror repeated Ulugbek madrasah in his creation, but in other proportions. Decoration of the walls is rich and colorful, but relinquishes to the prototype in the artistic and technical execution. Unrepeatable feature of madrasah mosaics are the images on the facade of the lions figures with a tousled mane, hunting for deer, sun with yellow rays and a human face placed behind the lions.
Tilla-Kori madrasah (trimmed with gold) 1646-1660 built on the site left over from Ulugbek construction times ruins of the caravanserai. The main task of the building — is logically close the Registan Square. The mosque should be placed inside the madrasah, so that students could pray without leaving the building, which was an innovation at that time. Abundance in the walls and arches painted in the manner of “kundal” with gold determined the name of madrasah — Tilla-Kori.